Fifty Candles (each)

(stackoverflow rep: 4675, Project Euler 72/240 complete)

The first programming language I learned was a peculiar version of BASIC, running on the ICL mainframe installed during my abbreviated university career. I seem to recall it used a magnetic drum as its primary storage device. My second programming language, and the first I was ever paid real money for working with, was COBOL. It was the lingua franca of business computing, had been around forever and I started to learn it early in 1979. It turns out that “ancient” old COBOL had at the time only been around for about 20 years. As indeed had I, and this year we both turn 50.

Ah, the fun we had!

Ah, the fun we had!

When the only tool you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail. (I remember vividly a school “handyman”, inexplicably nicknamed “Sausage”, who would repair desks by applying a large hammer to drive screws). I used COBOL for things to which it really wasn’t suited. For a couple of years, that didn’t just mean writing peculiar code, it meant punching cards on an IBM 029 punch machine.

Programming for work was done on paper coding sheets, converted into machine-readable format (80-column punched cards) two evenings a week by Hazel the Punch Girl. Times change.

Once upon a time all code was written on these

Once upon a time all code was written on these

It wasn’t as bad as you might think: we only got to compile or run our code twice a day anyway, the rest of the time involved pencils and paper. Lots of paper. Some things change less than others.

Anyway, designing, coding, compiling and testing/debugging a program was a mammoth task: it took months. Lots of months. I think in the three years I was a programmer in my first job I wrote about eight complete programs.

Virgin input to the 029...

Virgin input to the 029...

In all, I was primarily a COBOL programmer for about 12 years, although there were secondary activities in PL/1, Fortran and C in the same period. I haven’t written a line since some time in early 1990. Can’t say that I miss it, not even now that it has object-orientation, a scary concept for a language that didn’t even use to have data scoping below “global”.

So happy birthday to COBOL, whenever it falls during the year. I can’t say I miss you but you paid the bills for over a decade, and for that I’ll always be grateful.

[Wi|Ga]dgets – what’s the use?

(stackoverflow rep: 2539, Project Euler 47/227 complete)

Gadgets? We don’t need no stinking gadgets!

Microsoft, Yahoo! and Google, to name but three proponents, each have a desktop widget (or gadget, or whatever) model, either providing stuff spread out all over your Windows (are OSX and other *nix environments similarly afflicted?) desktop or tucked away in a “Sidebar”. These handy-dandy little applets provide information on such vitally otherwise hard-to-get functions such as:

  • The weather (for those not in sight of a window?);
  • RSS feeds (for those who want to read their feeds in a 2″x1″ window);
  • An e-mail notifier (because you still don’t understand the meaning of ‘asynchronous’);
  • The time (for those who can’t read the little digital clock on their taskbar and who don’t own a watch);
  • A calculator (because the world needs another computer desktop calculator);
  • Resource usage monitors (so you can tell your computer isn’t running slow);
  • A mediocre controller for your media player (because media players don’t have minimised controls … oh, yes they do);
  • Teeny-tiny picture viewers (for when flickr is just too much detail)
  • Out-of-date stock tickers (so you can see in delayed real-time how much poorer you are today)

… you get the idea.

Even better, all these are neatly tucked away on a “sidebar” (a sort of non-window window) or even better, spread out all over the shop, which is exactly what you want on a two- or three-screen setup. And they’re all handily concealed beneath the applications you’re running at any time. You know, those stupid time-wasters like Outlook, Excel, Firefox, Word, Visual Studio, a couple of Explorers and a database utility or two.


What we seem to have here are a collection of (sometimes) graphically pleasing little applications that deliver functionality available elsewhere, each having one or more of the following drawbacks:

  • Always-present, seldom needed;
  • Inadequate functionality;
  • Duplicate of something that’s already fit-for-purpose;
  • Pointless eye-candy;
  • Invisible.


Looking at Yahoo!’s programming category, I find that the most popular has been downloaded 80,000 times. It’s a widget that performs geolocation for a given IP address. With a flag. I’m trying to imagine a situation where I (or anyone) would need that often enough to abandon a browser-based function, opting for a desktop-resident applet against a “proper” application because I don’t need it that much. I don’t exactly see the “programming” connection either, come to think.

Yahoo programming widget downloads as at 12-Jan-2009

Data as at 12-Jan-2009

I’m probably not being fair – I thought the most useful stuff would be written for programmers. What does it look like overall? I can’t tell much from Google’s list because they don’t give download stats, although sorting by popularity shows the expected four C’s (clock, climate, calculator, calendar). So back to Yahoo! where the current Number One, with a snappy 4.5 million downloads, is Yahoo! Weather. In fact, as I write this, a whopping six widgets have passed the million mark. Only two are clocks.

Oh look - Microsoft Sidebar does weather too

Oh look - Microsoft Sidebar does weather too

The highlights of a quick-and-dirty breakdown of the top 100 are 19 fun-and-games, 15 system monitor thingies, 14 clocks, 9 calendars, 8 media players, 7 weather reports, 6 post-it notes, 5 gold rings. Very similar to the Google list. I was too depressed to look at Microsoft’s in any detail, but it’s the same ol’ same ol’, although their weather widget claims over 22 million downloads. I’m guessing it’s downloaded automatically when a Vista PC connects to the Internet…

Number one Google gadget - because you can never have too many clocks

Number one Google gadget - because you can never have too many clocks

I’m not getting it. Looks like many others aren’t either. The numbers of people who come back to provide a rating are miniscule: about 7,000 for the weather app. About 0.16%

Apart from the shocking paucity of imagination in the applets themselves, what’s wrong with the whole idea? (IMHO, of course, YMMV).

Real estate is Precious

There are people out there who have enough monitors to be able to allocate space for widgets. Two 1280×1024 screens isn’t enough for me though. Utility drops to almost zero if the things aren’t always available. Google make things worse by allowing applets to live anywhere on the desktop. Stuff needs to go in a sidebar that manages window maximisation to keep itself visible. So it needs to be on the right- or left-most monitor, unless you’re prepared to give up on dual-screen workbooks. For the average user, the bar needs to be a lot narrower than at present to be tolerable. Somewhere between, say, 25 and 50 pixels? I could live with that.

Useful vs Pretty

Useful doesn’t always win. Useful-but-ugly often doesn’t get past “Go”, whereas Pretty at least gets a chance. Long-term, it’s got to have both: too much of what’s on offer seems to be limited to pretty useless.

To offer a compelling argument against rapid deletion, applets have to either provide something in a better way than is currently available or provide something that isn’t available at all elsewhere . Example: there is a Ruby script that allows, from the command line, simple copying of files to an Amazon S3 bucket. Useful. Maybe we could have a widget (maybe it already exists, but I couldn’t find one) that allows upload via drag-and-drop from Explorer. That would be better than what’s already available. Something I can’t do at all except via cut and paste is store stuff in Google Notebook. A drag-and-drop gadget to simplify that would be providing something I can’t do at all.


I don’t know that I have one. There are several similar implementations of a desktop XML/Javascript applet technology that has a lot of money invested in it. Well, I don’t know how much exactly, but I bet I’d be a happy old programmer if you’d given it all to me instead. And you might as well have done exactly that, for all the benefit mankind appears to be accruing. It ought to be good for something, oughtn’t it?

Route 55 (and Route 19)

(Stackoverflow reputation down to 2232 after they cleaned up some over-voted stuff from the early days, sniff)

While I prevaricate over all kinds of things, including a redesign of the xlUnit interface, I have been enjoying Michael‘s series of articles on Project Euler solutions in VBA, posted at Daily Dose of Excel. There are some ingenious solutions to long-standing VB/VBA deficiencies, not least the absence of built-in facilities for handling arbitrarily large numbers beyond double precision variables.

I have an abiding fondness for the “classic” VB family – not least because it was the skill that fed and housed me and my family for a good 15 years or more. But boy, it can look a bit tired these days.

As it happens, I’d been taking a few shots at the Euler problems myself, but in Ruby, since that’s my language of choice these days (not least because much of my working day is currently spent working on intranet applications using Rails). So it was interesting to compare the two.

Let’s take problem 55. I took Michael’s code (with the neat little large number AddAsStrings routine) into Excel on my whizz-bang dual-dual-Xeon machine and it solved the problem in 0.554 seconds, which, considering the amount of string-based arithmetic that’s going on, is a testament to the speed of modern PCs.

Below is my Ruby version, which takes a rather different approach. Firstly, in Ruby we have support for arbitrarily large numbers, via the built-in Bignum class, so the string adding business is taken care of. Secondly, classes in Ruby, even compiled standard ones, are open to modification, via a technique colloquially known as monkey-patching. So I could patch in a method directly to the Integer class, which seems appropriate, since we’re looking for a property of the number.

Here’s the code:

class Integer
  def lychrel?(max = 50)
    temp = self
    max.times do
      temp = temp + temp.to_s.reverse.to_i
      return false if temp.to_s == temp.to_s.reverse
puts (1..9999).inject(0) { |t, i| t + (i.lychrel? ? 1 : 0) }

That took 0.410 seconds on the same machine. I can see at least one inefficiency: calling to_s twice on the same number, which is expensive.

On the other hand, VBA has the edge on problem 19. I spotted a little optimisation in Michael’s code, which gave me this in VBA, which is about 20 times faster at 0.0019 seconds than the original:

Dim Start   As Date
Dim Answer  As Long
Start = DateSerial(1901, 1, 1)
Do While Start < DateSerial(2001, 1, 1)
   If Weekday(Start) = vbSunday Then
      Answer = Answer + 1
   End If
   Start = DateSerial(Year(Start), Month(Start) + 1, 1)
Debug.Print Answer

Ruby’s Date class doesn’t do anything clever with months outside the 1 to 12 range, so I had to inject a little logic, but otherwise we’re pretty much in synch, algorithmically:

d =,1,1)
end_date =,12,31)
until d > end_date do
  res += 1 if d.cwday == 7
  y, m = d.year, d.month + 1
  y, m = y + 1, 1 if m > 12
  d =, m, 1)
puts res

Not much in it, lines-of-code wise as you’d probably expect, but the Ruby code takes about 0.36 seconds, which is a hell of a difference.

Call it one-all for now.

Dropping the (logic) bomb

My son Johnny (7) was asked a while back (by some feebly unimaginative adult) what he wanted to be when he grows up. “A normal person” was the reply. Fair enough. Not sufficiently deterred by that, the same adult persisted, enquiring what he’d like to do for a job. “What Dad does” was the reply. Good lad.

Actually, Johnny might well be very suitable – he may be borderline Asperger’s, which hasn’t exactly proved a millstone around the neck of a certain Mr William Henry Gates III (OK, no formal diagnosis on that one). More to the point, my little boy has a powerful intuitive grasp of logic already, as the following example should demonstrate.

Assume for a moment that you’re seven years old again, it’s almost time to leave for school and your shoes are nowhere to be found, not an entirely uncommon occurrence in the Grumpy household, if I’m honest. You have utterly no idea whatsoever where they are. Not a clue. They were presumably on your feet some time yesterday, but you can’t really be held responsible for what happened after you took them off, can you?

When presented with a theme park rollercoaster

When presented with a theme park rollercoaster...

Then your mother asks “Don’t you know where your shoes are?”

Pop quiz, Hotshot.

What do you do?

If you answer “Yes”, I’d say you’re showing some real signs of aptitude for programming. Mum, of course is going to be be nonplussed. For all her other sterling and wonderful qualities she’s always going to be the kind of person who centres text in Word through the heavy-handed application of the spacebar.

I’d assert that the answer has to be “yes”. After all, reversing the question to “Do you know where your shoes are?” has to receive the opposite answer. Were we to make the question more explicit, perhaps something like “Is it true that you don’t know where your shoes are?” then the answer is again obvious.

...a small boy has surprisingly little problem finding his shoes.

...a small boy has surprisingly little problem finding his shoes.

I’ve always struggled with these questions myself, having learned that people usually (but not always) expect the “wrong” answer. That brings in the necessity of attempting to work out which answer they’ll interpret as the one I want to give, which makes my head hurt. So I tend to provide the logically correct answer and then qualify it, which gets me an old-fashioned look but ensures that I’m less frequently misunderstood. “Yes, I don’t know where my shoes are”.

Spoken language is trickier, than most of us realise. It’s a reason why taking refuge in the rather less ambiguous world of code is often so comforting.

Note that I am substantially older than seven, have several pairs of shoes and know where most of them are most of the time.